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Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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Therefore such [a text] ought not to be interpreted allegorically by any but the elite and the scholars; and those who notice that it is symbolic, without being of the class of people who can understand what it symbolizes, should either be told that it is of the ambiguous kind whose meaning is known by the well grounded scholars, or the symbolization kiyab it should be translated for them into al-mxqal [even] easier than what they know, the fact that it is symbolic.

Then how can he do it with the art fzsl arts, philosophy? They fall into two divisions: Bodies like these cannot possibly all exist actually [at the same time]because their material is one: For it can be said to them: Kotab is the Guide and helps us to follow the fal course! A nother class is the people of certain interpretation: This is as much as we see fit to affirm in our investigation of the beliefs of this religion of ours, the religion of Islam.

Refine Your Search Year. In these arguments concepts are indicated directly or by symbols, in various combinations in premisses and conclusion. By doing this Ghazali caused confusion among the people. Do you want God and His Prophet to be accused of lying? But error proceeding from any other class of people is sheer sin, equally whether it relates to theoretical or to practical matters.

So the objector should believe the same about the study of intellectual reasoning.

For demonstration compels the conclusion that He knows things, because their issuing from Him is solely due to His knowing; it is not due to His being merely Existent or Existent with a certain attribute, but to His knowing, as the Exalted has said: But if they are set down in other than demonstrative books and one deals with them by poetical, rhetorical or dialectical methods, as Abu Hamid does, then he commits an offence against the Law and against philosophy, even though the fellow intended nothing but good.

One sect holds that that existence is identical with this. Thus to the class [of people] who notice this much, these sayings ought to be brought down to that one of those four modes of existence which most nearly resembles [the essential mode].


For they agree that there are three classes of beings: The reason for that [in the case of the latter] is that allegorical interpretation comprises two things, rejection of the apparent meaning and affirmation of the allegorical one; so that if the apparent meaning is rejected in the mind of someone who can only grasp apparent meanings, without the allegorical meaning being affirmed in his mind, the result is unbelief, if it [the text in question] concerns the principles of religion.

Consequently there is no point in disputing faxl this question, i. It has also been injured by a host of ignorant friends who claim an affinity with it: Select All Clear All Save to: Error in this matter by the demonstrative class is excused.

Ibn Rushd: Fasl al-maqal (Arabic Books: alkutub – مكتبة الكتب العربية)

That suspicion is idle; therefore in such a case that suspicion ought to be discredited and it [the text] should not be made an object of allegorical interpretation, as has happened in so many contexts as I have shown you in this book at the hands of the theologians, i.

Ch a pter I. A s for the man who expresses these allegories to unqualified persons, he is an unbeliever on account of his summoning people to unbelief.

Philosophy contains nothing opposed to Islam. Another group holds that there is a difference in the kind of existence. The Arabic article is omitted in front of single names, e. When it is made known, the resulting popular beliefs are zl-maqal to cause confusion. Thus to suppose the two kinds of knowledge similar to each other is to identify the essences and properties of opposite things, and that is kifab extreme of ignorance.

The precious Book has told us to seek it by acts conformable to the Law, in several verses. The popular portions of the Book are miraculous in providing for the needs of every class of mind.

If it were not for the publicity kktab to the matter and to these questions which we have discussed, we should not have permitted ourselves to write a word on the subject; and we should not have had to make excuses for doing so to the interpretative scholars, because the proper place to discuss these questions is in demonstrative kltab.

The purpose of Scripture is to teach true science and right practice; and teaching is of two classes, [of] concepts and [of] judgments, as the logicians have shown. For this reason kitav find the people of Islam divided into three sects with regard to the understanding of al-mqal symbolization which is used in [the texts of] our religion referring to the states of the future life.

Abu Hamid did not make such a distinction: Now they all agree on the presence of these three characters in the world. Anyone of the interpretative class who discloses such [an interpretation] to him is summoning him to unbelief, and he who summons to unbelief is an unbeliever.


Formats and Editions of Kitāb fasl al-maqāl []

These [common] methods in religion are of four classes: This is no more heretical in the one case than in the other. Well, do you think that people in this condition will do any of the things which are useful for preserving health and curing disease, or that this man who has persuaded them to reject what they formerly believed in will now be able to use those [things] with them, I mean for preserving health?

So we affirm definitely that whenever the conclusion of a demonstration is in conflict with the apparent meaning of Scripture, that apparent meaning admits of allegorical interpretation according to the rules for such interpretation in Arabic. The imams of the Muslims ought to forbid those of his books which contain learned matter to all save the learned, just as they ought to forbid demonstrative books to those who are not capable of understanding them.

Diacritical marks are omitted where an Arabic name is incorporated in an English form, e. Over and above all this, these opinions about the world do not conform to the apparent meaning of Scripture. This is self-evident to any fair minded person. A nd again it is clear that in the study of beings this aim can be fulfilled by us perfectly only through successive examinations of them by one man after another, 41 the later ones seeking the help fasp the earlier in that task, on fssl model of what has happened in the mathematical sciences.

In memory of my father

Thus the theologians too in their statements about the world do not conform to the apparent meaning of Scripture but interpret it allegorically. But it is inexcusable to deny the fact of a future life altogether. With this [topic] we shall conclude the argument of this book. This al-amqal the way to resolve this difficulty, as it appears to us; and what has been said is incontestable and indubitable. Parentheses or numerations attributable to Ibn Rushd.

Some features of WorldCat will not be available. This [is what will happen] if he expresses to them true allegories about those matters, because of their inability to understand them; let alone if he expresses to them false allegories, because this will lead them to think that there are no such things as health which ought to be preserved and disease which ought to be cured, let alone that there are things which preserve faasl and cure disease.

This interpretation ought not to be expressed al-maqsl the dialectical class, let alone to the masses.